Acetic acid

Acetic acid is a colorless liquid with a characteristic strong odor and a sour taste. Hygroscopic. Unlimitedly soluble in water. The composition is used in the food, chemical, textile and pharmaceutical industries.

Calculate the cost

Description

Acetic acid is a colorless liquid with a characteristic strong odor and a sour taste. Hygroscopic. Unlimitedly soluble in water. The composition is used in the food, chemical, textile and pharmaceutical industries.

Applications

Acetic acid, the concentration of which is close to 100%, is called icy. An aqueous solution of acetic acid 70-80% is called acetic essence, and 3-15% - vinegar. Aqueous solutions of acetic acid are widely used in the food industry (food supplement E260) and household cooking, as well as in canning vegetables and for descaling.

Acetic acid is also used in typography and dyeing.

Acetic acid is used as a reaction medium for the oxidation of various organic substances. Under laboratory conditions, this is, for example, the oxidation of organic sulfides with hydrogen peroxide, in industry, the oxidation of para-xylene with air oxygen to terephthalic acid.

Since acetic acid vapors have a sharp irritating odor, it is possible to use it for medical purposes as a substitute of ammonia for removing the patient from fainting.

Technical characteristics

Technical characteristics

Concentrated acetic acid has the following technical characteristics:

 

The percentage of pure acetic acid

is not less than 99.5%

The dielectric constant at 20 °C

6.15

Surface tension at 20 °C

is 28.8 mN/m

Entropy of formation (298 K, J/mol  K):

159.8 (g)

The calorific value

876.1 kJ / mol

Flash point

38 ° C

Safety and regulation

Anhydrous acetic acid is caustic. Acetic acid vapors irritate the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. The perception threshold for the smell of acetic acid in the air is around 0.4 mg/l. The maximum permissible concentration in atmospheric air is 0.06 mg/m³, in the air of working premises - 5 mg/m³

The effect of acetic acid on biological tissues depends on the degree of its dilution with water. Solutions in which the concentration of acid exceeds 30% are considered dangerous. Concentrated acetic acid is capable of causing chemical burns that initiate the development of coagulation necrosis of adjacent tissues of varying length and depth.

The toxicological properties of acetic acid do not depend on the way it was obtained. The lethal dose is approximately 20 ml.

Consequences of concentrated acetic acid intake are severe burns of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus and stomach; effects of the absorption of acetic essence - acidosis, hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, impaired blood clotting, accompanied by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Significant thickening of the blood due to plasma loss through the burnt mucous membrane, which can cause shock, is characteristic. The dangerous complications of acetic acid poisoning are acute renal failure and toxic liver dystrophy.

After taking acetic acid inside one should drink plenty of fluids. The induce of vomiting is extremely dangerous, since the secondary passage of acid through the esophagus will aggravate the burn. Gastric lavage through the probe is recommended. Immediate hospitalization required.