Chemical solvents are an organic or inorganic compounds and mixtures capable of dissolving liquid matters. For mixtures of liquid-gas and liquid - solid solvent is generally considered as liquid. for two and multicomponent solutions it is considered to be component, which amount is significantly higher then other components have. Solvents may be classified according to the chemical structure, physical properties and acid-base properties.
Chemical solvent in chemical structure are divided into organic and inorganic. Organic solvents belong to the following classes of compounds: aromatic hydrocarbons and alifatichnye ( see also Petroleum solvents ) of their halo and nitro derivatives, alcohols, carboxylic acids, ethers, esters, amides, acids, nitriles, ketones, sulfoxides, etc. The most important inorganic solvent - water. To fusible inorganic solvents include halides (eg, BrF3), oxyhalides (for example, sulfo rilhlorid thionyl chloride ), nitrogen-containing solvents (liquid NH3, hydrazine, hydroxylamine, etc.), as well as liquid SO2, hydrofluoric acid, etc. in some cases, apply the fusible metal ( gallium, tin, etc. ). A relatively new group of inorganic solvents - molten salts, which when it electrolytes is an excellent solvents for salts and metals are also suitable as a medium for organic reactions. There are used as a low-melting salt melts ( nitrate, acetate ) and relatively refractory ( halide, borate, phosphate, molybdate, vana- datnye etc.). Also it's widely used melts oxides ( PbO, Bi2O3, B2O3 ), and also mixed ( eg PbO + PbF2).
Russia chemical industry is a core of heavy industries and includes Russian chemical and petrochemical industry, subdivided into many industries and production, as well as the microbiological industry. It enables the production of acids, alkalis, fertilizers, various plastics, dyes, household chemicals, paints and varnishes, rubber- asbestos, photochemical and chemical and pharmaceutical products.
Chemical and petrochemical industries peculiar features, the combination of which makes this industry unique in the breadth of the economic use of their products. On the one hand, the production of the complex is used as raw materials in all industries ( medical, microbiological, electronic, aerospace, woodworking, light ), agriculture and transport. On the other hand, the processing of chemical and petrochemical feedstocks into final product comprises a plurality of redistribution processing steps, which determines a large fraction of intra consumption.
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